Dating vatican city

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In 1309 the Papal court was moved to Avignon (in France: the so called "Avignon captivity") and not only Rome itself but also St. The possibility of completely rebuilding St Peter’s was firstly approached the architect Rossellino whom, on behalf of Pope Nicholas V (1447-1455), drew up plans for enlarging the Basilica.Few years later, Pope Sixtus IV to Rome, asking them, respectively, to fresco the Papal apartments and the Sistine Chapel." was used in ancient times to identify the swampy area on the right bank of the Tiber River. During the Roman period, several villas, the Agrippina’s gardens, Emperor Caligula's (37-41 A.In the Roman period, at the time of both the Monarchy (753 - 509 B. D.) mother's house, coupled with a wide Circus and necropolis were built along the main roads - Via Cornelia. In this way, few years later, Pope Leo IV (847-855) built the first city walls of the "civitas" which derived its name "Leonina": the so called Leo's City which became the spiritual centre of Medieval and Renaissance Rome. In the meantime, two more "papacies" were created: the anti-popes in and/of Rome and the anti-anti-Popes of/in Pisa. Popes came back to Rome only in 1377 thanks to Catherine of Siena In Ancient Rome the Circus was a building for the exhibition of horse and chariot races, equestrian shows, staged battles, displays featuring trained exotic animals, jugglers and acrobats and other amusements.

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The Vatican Gardens comprise about half of the total area of Vatican City. Situated on about 40 hectares (100 acres) outside of Rome, however, is Castel Gandolfo, the pope's summer villa.

The Italian government grants this property special tax exemptions because of its association with Vatican City.

Porta Cavalleggeri is an important historical testimony even if its origin is still under debate, perhaps dating back to the end of the 14th century when the Vatican became the official seat of papal power and it was necessary to fortify its walls and make the existing leonine walls safer or to the half of the 15th century when it is thought to have been built by Pope Nicholas V or even around 850 by Pope Leo IV who surrounded the Vatican with its first walls.

Anyway it is proved that during the pontificate of Alexander VI in the 16th century some ancient walls and the gate were restored, this was possible thanks to the Borgia family, as a sign of gratitude large emblems have been placed on the highest part of the arch and on the keystone.

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